β-Carotene—properties and production methods | Food Quality and Safety | Oxford Academic
Therefore, systematic correlation analyses were conducted among chlorophyll, carotenoids, non-pigmented cell mass, and cell number of Dunaliella salina in a . This may be due to higher chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations present in the peel of . The NRF, Deciduous Fruit Producers' Trust and THRIP and for funding my research . color development in relation to activity of flavonoid enzymes. By: Schanderl, Sigmund Hugo. Published: (); Studies on photosynthetic enhancement in relation to chlorophyll a activity and accessory pigment function /.
It has numerous biological functions in the human body and because human is not able to synthesize any of them, it is necessary to supply these valuable compounds with food or pharmaceuticals.
Rising, therefore, market demand stimulates the development of its diverse production methods.
There was a problem providing the content you requested
Due to its high bioactivity, it is also widely used in medicine. It is considered as an inhibitor of some genes; moreover, it exhibits anticancer and antioxidant properties Berman et al.
In the pharmaceutical industry, it acts as a colouring agent for tablets, and in cosmetics industry, it is used as a bioactive ingredient of creams, which protects skin lesions against oxidation and exposure to UV radiation. Being a polyene compound, derived from the acyclic structure, C40H56 possesses a long chain of conjugated double bonds. The high temperature promotes the isomerization of double bonds, which results in brightening of the resulting colour Fratianni et al.Photosynthesis: Chlorophyll and Carotenoids contd. ; How do electrons get "excited?"
Due to their ability to dissolve in fat, carotenoids affect many biological processes, including photosynthesis, vision process, or sweeping of free radicals and singlet oxygen Geens et al.
Results were dependent on diet duration, different population characteristics, and other undiagnosed factors. Both plants and microbes are used as raw materials in technological process. The extracts were assayed using a spectrophotometer atand nm. Chlorophyll a and b contents and carotenoids were determined by following the equations Table 2 proposed by Wellburn Data was analyzed and correlated using linear regression procedures of Curve Expert program using quadratic polynomial, logarithmic, exponential or simple linear models.
Best fitted model which gave the highest percentage of fitness was determined by using the Curve Expert program. Fitted correlation curves demonstrated that the chlorophyll a and b as well as total carotenoids had quadratic correlation with the SCI Fig. The regression coefficient, R2 between chlorophyll contents and SCI ranged from 0. Within the extracted chlorophyll pigments, oil palm leaves showed higher amount of chlorophyll a, as 4 times higher than that of chlorophyll b.
Calibration curves for a Chlorophyll a, b b, c Total carotenoids and d Total leaf chlorophyll contents of oil palm leaves with SPAD chlorophyll index Fig. Within the same unit of SCI value, the chlorophyll concentration in oil palm were approximately 5 times higher than E. This further validate the need of developing specific correlation equation for cross species interpretation of SPAD readings. High R2 achieved further confirmed the robustness for use in other plant species.
Correlation of oil palm leaf a Nitrogen and b Potassium concentration to SPAD chlorophyll index Such variation is much expected as SPAD reading is affected by the leaf anatomical characteristics such as leaf thickness, fresh and dry leaf mass per area, leaf water contents and cuticle reflectance.
The leaf anatomical characteristics often are unique to each plant species, hence they explain the variation in SPAD reading and further justify for the need of calibration to actual chlorophyll contents for a reliable and interpretable data. In addition, the choice of wavelength potentially affects the detection accuracy, which the wavelength with large absorption coefficient increase the accuracy at low leaf chlorophyll contents and looses it accuracy at high leaf chlorophyll contents.
Relationship of SCI with leaf nitrogen and potassium concentration: Oil palm leaf nitrogen concentration were linearly correlated with SCI and has an R2 of 0. Intriguingly Law et al. The coefficient indicates that for every additional 1 SCI unit, the total nitrogen concentration in oil palm leaf would increase by an average of approximately 0. Correlation between leaf potassium concentration and SCI was poor as potassium is not the constituent of the photosynthetic pigments.
Hence the usage of SPAD meter for rapid in-field determination of potassium concentration is not recommended.
Relationship between SCI with photosynthetic activity: Photosynthetic rate of oil palm leaf correlated positively to SCI following a logarithmic model with R2 of 0. Photosynthetic rate are affected by the chlorophyll concentration.
pigments chlorophylls carotenoids: Topics by serii.info
As the chlorophyll concentration correlates well to SCI, hence the photosynthetic rate can be expected to correlate well with SCI. Good correlation between photosynthesis rate and SCI increases the robustness of SPAD meter for non-destructive and rapid determination of photosynthetic rate in the field, thus minimizing the need of bulky equipment such as the photosynthetic meter. Logarithmic correlation between photosynthetic rate of oil palm leaf and SPAD chlorophyll index Total replacement of photosynthetic meter is not possible as there are other additional parameters required for further study of the photosynthesis process.
Re-establishing the SCI data into expressive readings such as actual chlorophyll concentration is necessary for results interpretation. Oil palm leaf nitrogen concentration, chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic rate were highly correlated with R2 of above 0. With proper calibration equation, the SPAD chlorophyll meter are extremely versatile for rapid determination of oil palm leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll concentration as well as photosynthetic rate.
Correlation between leaf potassium concentration and SCI were poor as potassium is not the constituent of the photosynthetic pigments. The author would also his gratitude to Ms.