Civilization and Its Consequences - Oxford Handbooks
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a Thus a contrast between "culture" and "civilization" is usually implied in these authors, even when not expressed as such. new practices that produced a shift in gender relations, altering both gender and economic structures. What's the difference between culture and civilization? sufficiently to conquer some of the problems of order, security, and efficiency in complex society. The connection between, culture and language has been noted as far back as” the . People can work together to solve problems and create new things.
Some people argue that the Mon and Karen cultures in Thailand has been promoted for the sake of tourism campaigns. This statement reflects that fact that there are several culture functioning in the kingdom of Thailand. All the concrete things that were created by man, such as houses, clothes, instruments etc.
Clash of Civilizations - Wikipedia
Since each culture has peculiar features of its own, and since some cultures are more highly developed than others, we can say that a civilization is a superior culture. Some progress has been made in the arts and sciences, and political, social, and economic institutions have developed sufficiently to conquer some of the problems of order, security, and efficiency in complex society.
Thida Saraya says that we can judge a civilization of any society from the following criteria: Technological development; The development should fulfil its social need and have some exchange with other communities as well.
With technological skills, the people could produce their social individualized characters. Variety of professionals; The society should be composed of people in various professions. The people who are responsible in any field of work, for example, administration, politics, economics, and society can set up systems for their social and cultural development until those systems are recognized.
Social institutions; The society can set up its own institutions to manage social affairs in stead of the kinship system, and Integration of its own cultural characteristics; This may reflect on the patterns of art and the advancement of literature. What causes the rise of civilizations? What factors support their growth?
Civilization and Its Consequences
Some social scientists decide that factors of geography are the most important to the rise of civilization. Others stress economic resources, food supply, contact with older civilizations, and so on. Under geographical conditions, Ellsworth Huntington, an American geographer, insisted that no nation rose to the highest cultural status except under the influence of a climatic stimulus. InAdolf Bastian — argued for "the psychic unity of mankind. Franz Boas — was trained in this tradition, and he brought it with him when he left Germany for the United States.
In the 19th century, humanists such as English poet and essayist Matthew Arnold — used the word "culture" to refer to an ideal of individual human refinement, of "the best that has been thought and said in the world. Another facet of the Romantic movement was an interest in folklorewhich led to identifying a "culture" among non-elites.
This distinction is often characterized as that between high culturenamely that of the ruling social groupand low culture. In other words, the idea of "culture" that developed in Europe during the 18th and early 19th centuries reflected inequalities within European societies. Matthew Arnold contrasted "culture" with anarchy ; other Europeans, following philosophers Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseaucontrasted "culture" with "the state of nature.Prejudice & Discrimination: Crash Course Psychology #39
Just as some critics have argued that the distinction between high and low cultures is really an expression of the conflict between European elites and non-elites, other critics have argued that the distinction between civilized and uncivilized people is really an expression of the conflict between European colonial powers and their colonial subjects. Other 19th-century critics, following Rousseau, have accepted this differentiation between higher and lower culture, but have seen the refinement and sophistication of high culture as corrupting and unnatural developments that obscure and distort people's essential nature.
These critics considered folk music as produced by "the folk," i. Equally, this view often portrayed indigenous peoples as " noble savages " living authentic and unblemished lives, uncomplicated and uncorrupted by the highly stratified capitalist systems of the West.
In the anthropologist Edward Tylor — applied these ideas of higher versus lower culture to propose a theory of the evolution of religion. According to this theory, religion evolves from more polytheistic to more monotheistic forms.
This view paved the way for the modern understanding of culture. American anthropology Although anthropologists worldwide refer to Tylor's definition of culture,  in the 20th century "culture" emerged as the central and unifying concept of American anthropologywhere it most commonly refers to the universal human capacity to classify and encode human experiences symbolicallyand to communicate symbolically encoded experiences socially. Martin Lindstrom asserts that Kulturbrille, which allow us to make sense of the culture we inhabit, also "can blind us to things outsiders pick up immediately.
Sociology of culture The sociology of culture concerns culture as manifested in society. For sociologist Georg Simmel —culture referred to "the cultivation of individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in the course of history.
Culture can be any of two types, non-material culture or material culture. The term tends to be relevant only in archeological and anthropological studies, but it specifically means all material evidence which can be attributed to culture, past or present. Cultural sociology first emerged in Weimar Germany —where sociologists such as Alfred Weber used the term Kultursoziologie cultural sociology.
Cultural sociology was then "reinvented" in the English-speaking world as a product of the " cultural turn " of the s, which ushered in structuralist and postmodern approaches to social science. This type of cultural sociology may be loosely regarded as an approach incorporating cultural analysis and critical theory.
Cultural sociologists tend to reject scientific methods, instead hermeneutically focusing on words, artifacts and symbols. As a result, there has been a recent influx of quantitative sociologists to the field. Thus, there is now a growing group of sociologists of culture who are, confusingly, not cultural sociologists. These scholars reject the abstracted postmodern aspects of cultural sociology, and instead look for a theoretical backing in the more scientific vein of social psychology and cognitive science.
Part of the legacy of the early development of the field lingers in the methods much of cultural sociological research is qualitativein the theories a variety of critical approaches to sociology are central to current research communitiesand in the substantive focus of the field. For instance, relationships between popular culturepolitical control, and social class were early and lasting concerns in the field.
Cultural studies In the United Kingdomsociologists and other scholars influenced by Marxism such as Stuart Hall — and Raymond Williams — developed cultural studies. Following nineteenth-century Romantics, they identified "culture" with consumption goods and leisure activities such as art, music, film, foodsports, and clothing.
They saw patterns of consumption and leisure as determined by relations of productionwhich led them to focus on class relations and the organization of production. These practices comprise the ways people do particular things such as watching television, or eating out in a given culture. It also studies the meanings and uses people attribute to various objects and practices. Specifically, culture involves those meanings and practices held independently of reason. Watching television in order to view a public perspective on a historical event should not be thought of as culture, unless referring to the medium of television itself, which may have been selected culturally; however, schoolchildren watching television after school with their friends in order to "fit in" certainly qualifies, since there is no grounded reason for one's participation in this practice.
In the context of cultural studies, the idea of a text includes not only written languagebut also filmsphotographsfashion or hairstyles: The last two, in fact, have become the main focus of cultural studies.
A further and recent approach is comparative cultural studiesbased on the disciplines of comparative literature and cultural studies.
The British version of cultural studies had originated in the s and s, mainly under the influence of Richard Hoggart, E. This included overtly political, left-wing views, and criticisms of popular culture as "capitalist" mass culture ; it absorbed some of the ideas of the Frankfurt School critique of the " culture industry " i. This emerges in the writings of early British cultural-studies scholars and their influences: In the United States, Lindlof and Taylor write, "Cultural studies [were] grounded in a pragmatic, liberal-pluralist tradition.
This strain of thinking has some influence from the Frankfurt Schoolbut especially from the structuralist Marxism of Louis Althusser and others. The main focus of an orthodox Marxist approach concentrates on the production of meaning.
This model assumes a mass production of culture and identifies power as residing with those producing cultural artifacts.