The Merchant of Venice - Wikipedia
Nerissa and Gratiano's relationship relationships in the merchant of venice God helps those who help themselves essay in urdu Essay - Relationship Between. Summary At Belmont, Portia would like Bassanio to delay before he chooses one of of all her possessions, now commits herself and all she owns to her new lord . Nerissa and Gratiano congratulate the lovers and announce that they also. The relationship between Nerissa and Gratiano develops as a mirroring of the relationship between Portia and Bassanio; when Portia and.
Similarly, it is possible that Shakespeare meant Shylock's forced conversion to Christianity to be a " happy ending " for the character, as, to a Christian audience, it saves his soul and allows him to enter Heaven. The Nazis used the usurious Shylock for their propaganda. Shortly after Kristallnacht inThe Merchant of Venice was broadcast for propagandistic ends over the German airwaves. This was the first known attempt by a dramatist to reverse the negative stereotype that Shylock personified.
With slight variations much of English literature up until the 20th century depicts the Jew as "a monied, cruel, lecherous, avaricious outsider tolerated only because of his golden hoard". Many modern readers and theatregoers have read the play as a plea for tolerance, noting that Shylock is a sympathetic character. They cite as evidence that Shylock's "trial" at the end of the play is a mockery of justice, with Portia acting as a judge when she has no right to do so.
The characters who berated Shylock for dishonesty resort to trickery in order to win. In addition, Shakespeare gives Shylock one of his most eloquent speeches: Why, I am sure, if he forfeit, thou wilt not take his flesh. What's that good for? To bait fish withal; if it will feed nothing else, it will feed my revenge.
Relationship Dynamics in The Merchant of Venice | readwithamy
He hath disgraced me and hindered me half a million, laughed at my losses, mocked at my gains, scorned my nation, thwarted my bargains, cooled my friends, heated mine enemies — and what's his reason? I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions; fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer as a Christian is? If you prick us, do we not bleed?
The Merchant of Venice
If you tickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die?
And if you wrong us, shall we not revenge? If we are like you in the rest, we will resemble you in that. If a Jew wrong a Christian, what is his humility?
If a Christian wrong a Jew, what should his sufferance be by Christian example? The villainy you teach me, I will execute, and it shall go hard but I will better the instruction. One of the reasons for this interpretation is that Shylock's painful status in Venetian society is emphasised. To some critics, Shylock's celebrated "Hath not a Jew eyes? The Christians in the courtroom urge Shylock to love his enemies, although they themselves have failed in the past.
Jewish critic Harold Bloom suggests that, although the play gives merit to both cases, the portraits are not even-handed: In his plays and poetry Shakespeare often depicted strong male bonds of varying homosocialitywhich has led some critics to infer that Bassanio returns Antonio's affections despite his obligation to marry: Commend me to your honourable wife: Tell her the process of Antonio's end, Say how I lov'd you, speak me fair in death; And, when the tale is told, bid her be judge Whether Bassanio had not once a love.
But life itself, my wife, and all the world Are not with me esteemed above thy life; I would lose all, ay, sacrifice them all Here to this devil, to deliver you. Auden describes Antonio as "a man whose emotional life, though his conduct may be chaste, is concentrated upon a member of his own sex. Antonio's frustrated devotion is a form of idolatry: There is one other such idolator in the play: There was, states Auden, a traditional "association of sodomy with usury", reaching back at least as far as Dantewith which Shakespeare was likely familiar.
Auden sees the theme of usury in the play as a comment on human relations in a mercantile society.
Other interpreters of the play regard Auden's conception of Antonio's sexual desire for Bassanio as questionable. Michael Radford, director of the film version starring Al Pacinoexplained that, although the film contains a scene where Antonio and Bassanio actually kiss, the friendship between the two is platonic, in line with the prevailing view of male friendship at the time. Jeremy Ironsin an interview, concurs with the director's view and states that he did not "play Antonio as gay".
Joseph Fienneshowever, who plays Bassanio, encouraged a homoerotic interpretation and, in fact, surprised Irons with the kiss on set, which was filmed in one take.
Fiennes defended his choice, saying "I would never invent something before doing my detective work in the text. If you look at the choice of language … you'll read very sensuous language. That's the key for me in the relationship.
The great thing about Shakespeare and why he's so difficult to pin down is his ambiguity. He's not saying they're gay or they're straight, he's leaving it up to his actors. I feel there has to be a great love between the two characters … there's great attraction. I don't think they have slept together but that's for the audience to decide.
Performance history[ edit ] The earliest performance of which a record has survived was held at the court of King James in the spring offollowed by a second performance a few days later, but there is no record of any further performances in the 17th century.
This version which featured a masque was popular, and was acted for the next forty years. Granville cut the clownish Gobbos  in line with neoclassical decorum ; he added a jail scene between Shylock and Antonio, and a more extended scene of toasting at a banquet scene. Thomas Doggett was Shylock, playing the role comically, perhaps even farcically.
Rowe expressed doubts about this interpretation as early as ; Doggett's success in the role meant that later productions would feature the troupe clown as Shylock. InCharles Macklin returned to the original text in a very successful production at Drury Lanepaving the way for Edmund Kean seventy years later see below.
Shylock on stage[ edit ] See also: Shylock Jewish actor Jacob Adler and others report that the tradition of playing Shylock sympathetically began in the first half of the 19th century with Edmund Kean and that previously the role had been played "by a comedian as a repulsive clown or, alternatively, as a monster of unrelieved evil.
Henry Irving 's portrayal of an aristocratic, proud Shylock first seen at the Lyceum inwith Portia played by Ellen Terry has been called "the summit of his career".
Adler played the role in Yiddish -language translation, first in Manhattan 's Yiddish Theater District in the Lower East Sideand later on Broadwaywhere, to great acclaim, he performed the role in Yiddish in an otherwise English-language production. In a interview with Theater magazine, Adler pointed out that Shylock is a wealthy man, "rich enough to forgo the interest on three thousand ducats" and that Antonio is "far from the chivalrous gentleman he is made to appear.
He has insulted the Jew and spat on him, yet he comes with hypocritical politeness to borrow money of him. For instance, in the film adaptation directed by Michael Radford and starring Al Pacino as Shylock, the film begins with text and a montage of how Venetian Jews are cruelly abused by bigoted Christians.
Relationships in the merchant of venice
One of the last shots of the film also brings attention to the fact that, as a convert, Shylock would have been cast out of the Jewish community in Venice, no longer allowed to live in the ghetto. Another interpretation of Shylock and a vision of how "must he be acted" appears at the conclusion of the autobiography of Alexander Granacha noted Jewish stage and film actor in Weimar Germany and later in Hollywood and on Broadway.
Weber played Portia and Smalley, her husband, played Shylock. With this film, Weber became the first woman to direct a full-length feature film in America.
This admission, in turn, relieves Portia's anxiety somewhat, and her old spirit of jesting returns and she wittily picks up on Bassanio's choice of metaphor and teases him. This witty wordplay has the effect of delaying the choice of caskets and further allowing Portia to relax and display her spirit and sense of wit.
We are never allowed to forget her intelligence because this element will be the key ingredient in the play's climactic scene. Bassanio moves to the caskets, and Portia begins a lovely speech, built around the notion of sacrifice.
Her phrase "I stand for sacrifice" is particularly apt. Twice, we have watched Portia prepare to become a sort of sacrificial victim, as it were, to unwanted suitors. She has not complained, but we now see that her role in this casket contest contains special intensity. Should Bassanio choose wrongly, she will literally be a sacrifice to a later, unloved husband, as well as being forever a victim of unfulfilled love. The central idea in the song that is used as background music while Bassanio is making his choice of caskets focuses on the word "fancy.
Bassanio picks up on this idea and elaborates on it when he meditates on the way in which "outward shows" mislead or deceive the observer. He extends this perception to law, religion, military honor, and physical beauty. We are thus reminded of the way in which the Princes of Morocco and Arragon were taken in by the outer appearance of the gold and silver caskets.
Bassanio rejects both of these caskets, and his reasons are significant in the total meaning of the play. He calls gold "hard food for Midas"; Midas imagined that gold itself could be something nutritive or lifegiving, and he starved to death for his mistake. This causes us to think of the play's Midas-figure — Shylock, for whom wealth is, in itself, something of final, ultimate value.
And so Bassanio finally comes to choose the least likely looking casket — the leaden one — and, of course, his choice is the right one. Both Bassanio's speech and his choice of caskets touch on one of the central themes of the play — the contrast between appearance and reality; what appears to be valuable gold and silver turns out to be worthless, and what appears to be worthless lead turns out to be valuable.
If we ask ourselves why Bassanio is enabled to judge rightly when others fail, the answer is simply that his motive is love, rather than pride or the desire for worldly gain. Another idea that Shakespeare is developing here is concerned, again, with wealth. Bassanio sees wealth as useful only in securing love and happiness.
Bassanio's conduct suggests that the only use for wealth, for "all that he hath," is in giving or risking it in the pursuit of happiness, not in hoarding it or worshipping it for its own sake. The exchange of vows between Portia and Bassanio is conducted at an intense and exalted level.
But because the play is a romantic comedy, its tone becomes lighter when Gratiano reveals that now that Bassanio has won Portia, he has won Nerissa, and his wooing is presented in bold contrast to Bassanio.Gratiano Monologue; The Merchant of Venice
Gratiano has worked at it "until I sweat again," and he offers to bet that he and Nerissa will be the first of the two couples to produce a child, which rounds off the whole sequence with a typical coarse jest. The Elizabethans would have loved this ribald touch. Portia and Bassanio have presented their idyllic romantic love as something ideal; Gratiano readjusts the balance by the reminder that love is a physical as well as a spiritual union.
So far, Venice and Belmont — the world of mercantile ventures and the world of love — have been kept separate. Now, with the arrival of Lorenzo, Jessica, and Salerino from Venice, these two worlds meet, and the evils of wealth, spawned in Venice, disrupt the happy serenity of Belmont.