Jessica (The Merchant of Venice) - Wikipedia
Take that scene in The Merchant of Venice in which Shylock presses his Phoebe and Jonathan Pryce as Jessica and Shylock in a . can possibly be trusted – those strange stutterings in which he addresses himself in. The play 'The Merchant of Venice', by William Shakespeare, shows two Portia and her recently diseased father, the other involving Jessica and Shylock, The first relationship emphasizes love, respect and trust whereas the other are. The character of Shylock is so large and the themes of prejudice and justice and Portia's relationship with her father, though not perfect, was probably the most lack of faith in Portia's good sense—he doesn't trust her to make a wise choice on (The Signet Classic Shakespeare: The Merchant of Venice, Kenneth Myrick, .
DH Lawrence wrote astutely about what happens to a living work when the artist puts his finger in the pan, forcing its outcome.
The Relationship Between Portia And Her Father In Merchant Of Venice
It ceases to be a living work. Much of what we make of Shylock is determined by the age of the actor, the clothes he wears and the curve of his nose It has always seemed wrong to me to talk of The Merchant of Venice as an anti- or a pro-semitic play.
Were it either it would be less the play it is. In both cases, Shylock appals them. But for me Shylock lives, with all his human imperfections on show. We know him by his speech, his repetitions — as though no thing said only once can possibly be trusted — those strange stutterings in which he addresses himself in a sort of surprise, his sudden absences when he is with others that causes them to wonder whether he is taking note of them at all, his unexpected reversions to lyricism, his exasperated bursts of thought, no matter that no one will accept a word of what he says, that make him a kind of second cousin to Hamlet.
No, there is never any thinking of him as other than a Jew: Would he have made life easier for himself had he relented? They speak of love and think of money. They speak of mercy and show none. They are only not more dangerous because they are indolent and forget to be. All my books are apocalyptic. I intend no ill to Cheshire by doing that. Although Belmont appears to have a different set of values when compared to Venice, it is actually governed by the same laws of contract. This moral deterioration is most evident in the marital relationship between Bassanio and Portia, with especially the latter relinquishing his wedding ring so easily.
Contract, Friendship, and Love in The Merchant of Venice
An examination of this marriage will show how contractual Belmont leads both characters to think and act out of self-interest. Portia stands poised to be transferred to the winning suitor, the portrait hidden in one of the three caskets that symbolizes her objectification III. On winning Portia, Bassanio immediately becomes indebted to his new wife, who has positioned herself as a creditor rather than as a prize to be handed over.
I would not trebled twenty times myself, A thousand times more fair, ten thousand times more rich, That only to stand high in your account, I might in virtues, beauties, livings, friends Exceed account III. In other words, Portia presents herself as type of investment that appreciates value over time and can be redeemed at some point in the future.
Although Portia initially trusts Bassanio with her house, servants, and herself, she later changes the terms of the contract where she becomes both owner and possessor of Bassanio III. This inversion of the usual situation, which the husband typically imposes fidelity on the wife, is not only a demonstration of feminism but a form of feminism that conceives and explains the non-contractual relationship of marriage in contractual terms. Bassanio can only offer his blood as collateral to ratify the nuptial bonds between him and Portia.
Like Portia, Jessica is bound to her father; but unlike Portia, this bond is also religious as well as paternal. Jessica has a choice to honor the bond with her father, Shylock, or follow her desires to flee with Lorenzo. Both women also are associated with caskets and wealth: While Jessica has recklessly spent their stolen money, Portia has carefully conserved her wealth to make her husband a debtor in their relationship. Except Shylock, those character who conceive and act in contractual terms are successful, while those who do not, such as Antonio and Jessica, fare less well.
Because both Venice and Belmont are cities founded upon contract, the regimes make those who act non-contractually, whether agreeing to unreasonable loans or breaking paternal bonds, melancholic without knowing the motive behind it. Only those who are able to calculate correctly like Bassanio and Portia will be content in such a regime. Values incommensurate with contract must either be re-conceptualized in contractual terms to be successful or face failure in a world governed by self-interest, utility, and profit.
Conclusion The pattern of exchanges enforced by contracts is one, if not the, dominant theme in The Merchant of Venice.
The leaden casket that Bassanio chooses is the one that contains the portrait of Portia, which in turns symbolizes his right to marry her. Portia interprets that right as a right of possession over her property and person as symbolized by the wedding which she gives to her new husband. As the betrothed of Bassanio, she then offers many times the value of the three thousand ducats to ransom the life of Antonio III.
A stony adversary, an inhuman wretch, Uncapable of pity, void and empty From any dram of mercy IV. By tempering justice, mercy blesses both the giver and receiver of the contract, thereby making both participants divine-like. But for Shylock, justice is enough.
Ultimately, Shylock retains his life but loses his fortune and religion, as he is forced to convert to Christianity IV. Later in Belmont, Portia demands to see the ring and feigns jealousy at its loss, accusing Bassanio of giving it away to another woman and threatening to sleep with the lawyer, to whom Bassanio gave the ring V.
Thus, The Merchant of Venice reveals the moral limitations of a commercial regime based on contract and the corrosive effects it has on non-contractual relationships like friendship, love, and marriage. This is evident in the decisions, actions, and relationships of Antonio, Bassanio, Portia, and Jessica in the play: Although he ends the play on a happy note, Shakespeare has given us a cast of characters who break paternal bonds, fail to understand friendship, and perceive marriage in contractual and commercial terms.
The conclusion one can reach is that, in spite of its advantages, regimes based on commerce and contract ultimately fail to create the conditions for non-contractual relations to flourish.
Among early modern writers, Venice had enjoyed mythical status because of its political institutions and ideals of republicanism. How the Venetians were able to accomplish this feat was of interest to the English and perhaps even to us today. It would seem that this is the price that the citizens of any commercial and contractual republic must pay for in exchange for these goods. Notes  I would like to thank referees, Richard Avramenko, Brianne Walsh, and the University of Wisconsin Political Theory workshop for their criticism of this article.
Most critics have focused on the themes of justice and mercy as respectively represented by the character Shylock and the city Venice and Portia and Belmont. Methuen, ; C. Princeton University Press,; W. Sylvan Barnet Englewood Cliffs: For other themes in the play, refer to Barbara K. Scholars also have looked at the role of women in the play. Materialist Feminist Criticism of Shakespeare, ed.
Finally, there are commentators who believe there is no coherent plot or theme in the play.
University of Chicago Press,; David N. Basic Books,; Paul N. A Reading of The Merchant of Venice. Contemporary Critical Approaches, ed. Yaffe, Shylock and the Jewish Question Baltimore: Blackemore Evans et al. Houghton Mifflin Company, Colorado University Press, ; George W. Pitman,; Ruth M. The Morality of Love and Money Oxford: Oxford University Press, Cambridge University Press, ; Linda Woodbridge, ed.
Hyman and Thomas H. Essays in Literature and Politics, ed.
- Villain or victim, Shakespeare’s Shylock is a character to celebrate
- The relationship between portia and her father in merchant of venice
Random House, The Ethics appeared in both public and private inventories two or three time more often than the Politics; and On Duties was ubiquitous in English grammar-school classrooms throughout the sixteenth-centuries for instruction in Latin. Avarice, Monopoly, and the Moral Economy in England, ca.
Cicero in Tudor England Nieuwkoop: Oxford UP, Loeb Classical Library Cambridge: Harvard University Press,b Subsequent citations are in-text. For the other types of Aristotelian friendships, utility and pleasure, refer to a Aristotle on the Place s of Philia in Human Life. Essays in Political Thought, ed. However, this conflict between self-interest and virtue manifests itself again when Bassanio decides to value his friendship with Antonio over his marriage to Portia, when Bassanio gives his wedding ring, albeit reluctantly, to Balthazar IV.
Lowenthal see Antonio as representative of classical philosophical knowledge in contrast to revelation, while Holmer interprets Antonio as being bound in a more perfect love with Bassanio and Portia. Probate evidence of the period indicates that woman had control over property, particularly over land, than what the law had admitted.
This was particularly true for women of higher social status or who possessed greater wealth than their husbands. Routledge, ; B. Sokol and Mary Sokol. Shakespeare, Law, and Marriage Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, An Interpretation of The Merchant of Venice.
Alvis and Thomas G. ISI Books, When patriarchal approval is withheld, the result is often the fate of a Juliet or Desdemona. A significance difference between Jessica and these other two heroines is her conversion to Christianity, whereas both Juliet and Desdemona remain Christian throughout their plays.
Both parties are sad but they do not know why.