Zeus and Hera vs. Hades and Persephone
Hades and his brothers Zeus and Poseidon defeated their father and the Titans to end The god of the underworld was married to Persephone, the daughter of . Hades in the ancient Greek religion and myth, is the god of the dead and the king of the underworld, with which his name became synonymous. Hades was the eldest son of Cronus and Rhea, although the last son regurgitated by his father. He and his brothers, Zeus and Poseidon, defeated their father's generation He had three older sisters, Hestia, Demeter, and Hera, as well as a younger. In Greek mythology, Persephone also called Kore is the daughter of Zeus and Demeter. She becomes the queen of the underworld through her abduction by and subsequent marriage to Hades, the god of the underworld. . As a goddess of the underworld, Persephone was given euphemistically friendly names.
Fresco from TirynsBC. National Archaeological Museum of Athens. There is evidence of a cult in Eleusis from the Mycenean period;  however, there are not sacral finds from this period.
The cult was private and there is no information about it. As well as the names of some Greek gods in the Mycenean Greek inscriptions, also appear names of goddesses, like "the divine Mother" the mother of the gods or "the Goddess or priestess of the winds", who don't have Mycenean origin. John Chadwick believes that these were the precursor divinities of DemeterPersephone and Poseidon. In the cave of Amnisos at CreteEileithyia is related with the annual birth of the divine child and she is connected with Enesidaon The earth shakerwho is the chthonic aspect of the god Poseidon.
The goddess of nature and her companion survived in the Eleusinian cult, where the following words were uttered "Mighty Potnia bore a great sun".
Zeus and Hera V.S. Hades and Persephone
The name pais the divine child appears in the Mycenean inscriptions,  and the ritual indicates the transition from the old funerary practices to the Greek cremation.
BaltimoreMaryland The story of her abduction by Hades can be seen as either consensual or against her will, is traditionally referred to as the Rape of Persephone. It is mentioned briefly in Hesiod 's Theogony and told in considerable detail in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. Persephone used to live far away from the other gods, a goddess within Nature herself before the days of planting seeds and nurturing plants.
In the Olympian telling, the gods AresHermes and Apollo had wooed Persephone; but Demeter rejected all their gifts and hid her daughter away from the company of the Olympian gods.
The Myth of Hades and Persephone
Persephone was gathering flowers with the Oceanids along with Artemis and Athena —the Homeric Hymn says—in a field when Hades came to abduct her, bursting through a cleft in the earth. In most versions she forbids the earth to produce, or she neglects the earth and in the depth of her despair she causes nothing to grow. Heliosthe sun, who sees everything, eventually told Demeter what had happened and at length she discovered the place of her abode.
Finally, Zeus, pressed by the cries of the hungry people and by the other deities who also heard their anguish, forced Hades to return Persephone. Hades indeed complied with the request, but first he tricked her, giving her some pomegranate seeds to eat.
Persephone was released by Hermes, who had been sent to retrieve her, but because she had tasted food in the underworld, she was obliged to spend a third of each year the winter months there, and the remaining part of the year with the gods above. The Siciliansamong whom her worship was probably introduced by the Corinthian and Megarian colonists, believed that Hades found her in the meadows near Ennaand that a well arose on the spot where he descended with her into the lower world.
The Cretans thought that their own island had been the scene of the rape, and the Eleusinians mentioned the Nysian plain in Boeotia, and said that Persephone had descended with Hades into the lower world at the entrance of the western Oceanus.
Later accounts place the rape in Atticanear Athensor near Eleusis.
The location of this mythical place may simply be a convention to show that a magically distant chthonic land of myth was intended in the remote past. Eubuleus was feeding his pigs at the opening to the underworld when Persephone was abducted by Plouton. His swine were swallowed by the earth along with her, and the myth is an etiology for the relation of pigs with the ancient rites in Thesmophoria and in Eleusis.
In the hymn, Persephone returns and she is reunited with her mother near Eleusis. Demeter as she has been promised established her mysteries orgies when the Eleusinians built for her a temple near the spring of Callichorus. These were awful mysteries which were not allowed to be uttered.
The uninitiated would spend a miserable existence in the gloomy space of Hades after death. When Demeter and her daughter were reunited, the Earth flourished with vegetation and color, but for some months each year, when Persephone returned to the underworld, the earth once again became a barren realm.
This is an origin story to explain the seasons. In an earlier version, Hecate rescued Persephone. On an Attic red-figured bell krater of c. This Macaria is asserted to be the daughter of Hades, but no mother is mentioned.
In the myth Pluto abducts Persephone to be his wife and the queen of his realm this is the myth which explains their marriage. The child was abandoned by his mother and then it was brought up by the powers of nature. Similar myths appear in the cults of Hyakinthos AmyklaiErichthonios Athensand later in the cult of Dionysos. Pluto Ploutos represents the wealth of the grain that was stored in underground silos or ceramic jars pithoiduring summer months. Similar subterranean pithoi were used in ancient times for burials and Pluto is fused with Hadesthe King of the realm of the dead.
During summer months, the Greek grain-Maiden Kore is lying in the grain of the underground silos in the realm of Hades, and she is fused with Persephone, the Queen of the Underworld. At the beginning of the autumn, when the seeds of the old crop are laid on the fields, she ascends and is reunited with her mother Demeterfor at that time the old crop and the new meet each other. For the initiated, this union was the symbol of the eternity of human life that flows from the generations which spring from each other.
National Archaeological Museum of Athens The primitive myths of isolated Arcadia seem to be related to the first Greek-speaking people who came from the north-east during the bronze age.
Despoina the mistressthe goddess of the Arcadian mysteries, is the daughter of Demeter and Poseidon Hippios horsewho represents the river spirit of the underworld that appears as a horse as often happens in northern-European folklore.
He pursues the mare-Demeter and from the union she bears the horse Arion and a daughter who originally had the form or the shape of a mare. The two goddesses were not clearly separated and they were closely connected with the springs and the animals. They were related with the god of rivers and springs; Poseidon and especially with Artemisthe Mistress of the Animals who was the first nymph. They are the two Great Goddesses of the Arcadian cults, and evidently they come from a more primitive religion.
In particular, the Greek war hero Achilleswhom Odysseus conjured with a blood libationsaid: O shining Odysseus, never try to console me for dying. I would rather follow the plow as thrall to another man, one with no land allotted to him and not much to live on, than be a king over all the perished dead.
HomerOdyssey Since to many, simply to say the word "Hades" was frightening, euphemisms were pressed into use. Since precious minerals come from under the earth i. Sophocles explained the notion of referring to Hades as Plouton with these words: He spent most of the time in his dark realm.
Formidable in battle, he proved his ferocity in the famous Titanomachythe battle of the Olympians versus the Titanswhich established the rule of Zeus. Feared and loathed, Hades embodied the inexorable finality of death: Hades ruled the Underworld and was therefore most often associated with death and feared by men, but he was not Death itself — it is Thanatosson of Nyx and Erebuswho is the actual personification of death, although Euripides' play "Alkestis" states fairly clearly that Thanatos and Hades were one and the same deity, and gives an interesting description of Hades as being dark-cloaked and winged;  moreover, Hades was also referred to as Hesperos Theos "god of darkness".
The person who offered the sacrifice had to avert his face. His chariot, drawn by four black horses, made for a fearsome and impressive sight.
Persephone - Wikipedia
His other ordinary attributes were the narcissus and cypress plants, the Key of Hades and Cerberusthe three-headed dog. This is believed to hold significance as in certain classical sources Hades ravished Kore in the guise of a snake, who went on to give birth to Zagreus-Dionysus.
He also notes that the grieving goddess Demeter refused to drink wine, as she states that it would be against themis for her to drink wine, which is the gift of Dionysus, after Persephone's abduction, because of this association; indicating that Hades may in fact have been a "cover name" for the underworld Dionysus.
Evidence for a cult connection is quite extensive, particularly in southern Italy, especially when considering the death symbolism included in Dionysian worship;   statues of Dionysus   found in the Ploutonion at Eleusis gives further evidence as the statue bears a striking resemblance to the statue of Eubouleus  also known as the youthful depiction of the Lord of the Underworld.
The statue of Eubouleus is described as being radiant but disclosing a strange inner darkness.Adonis in the Underworld (Persephone and Adonis) Part 2/2 - Greek Mythology See U in History
Archaic artist Xenocles portrayed on one side of a vase, Zeus, Poseidon and Hades, each with his emblems of power; with Hades' head turned back to front and, on the other side, Dionysus striding forward to meet his bride Persephone, with a kantharos in his hand, against a background of grapes.
Sometimes, artists painted Hades as looking away from the other gods, as he was disliked by them as well as humans. He holds a cornucopiarepresenting the gifts he bestows upon people as well as fertility, which he becomes connected to. Oil on wood with gilt background.
Property of Missing Link Antiques. Persephone did not submit to Hades willingly, but was abducted by him while picking flowers in the fields of Nysa Her father, Zeus, had previously given Persephone to Hades, to be his wife, as is stated in the very first lines of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. In protest of his act, Demeter cast a curse on the land and there was a great famine; though, one by one, the gods came to request she lift it, lest mankind perish and cause the gods to be deprived of their receiving gifts and sacrifices, Demeter asserted that the earth would remain barren until she saw her daughter again.
Zeus then sends for his son, Hermesand instructs him to go down to the Underworld in hopes that he may be able to convince Hades to allow Persephone to return to Earth, so that Demeter might see Persephone and cause the famine to stop.
Hermes obeys and goes down to Hades' realm, wherein he finds Hades seated upon a couch, Persephone seated next to him. Hermes relays Zeus' message, and Hades complies, saying, "Go now, Persephone, to your dark-robed mother, go, and feel kindly in your heart towards me: And while you are here, you shall rule all that lives and moves and shall have the greatest rights among the deathless gods: Demeter and Persephone run towards each other and embrace one another, happy that they are reunited.
Demeter, however, suspects that Persephone may have eaten food while down in the Underworld, and so she questions Persephone, saying: Speak out and hide nothing, but let us both know. For if you have not, you shall come back from loathly Hades and live with me and your fatherthe dark-clouded son of Cronos and be honored by all the deathless gods; but if you have tasted food, you must go back again beneath the secret places of the earth, there to dwell a third part of the seasons every year: But when the earth shall bloom with the fragrant flowers of spring in every kind, then from the realm of darkness and gloom thou shalt come up once more to be a wonder for gods and mortal men.
And now tell me how he rapt you away to the realm of darkness and gloom, and by what trick did the strong Host of Many beguile you? Persephone's eating the pomegranate seed binds her to Hades and the Underworld, much to the dismay of Demeter.
Zeus, however, had previously proposed a compromise, to which all parties had agreed: Theseus chose Helen and together they kidnapped her and decided to hold onto her until she was old enough to marry.
They left Helen with Theseus' mother, Aethraand traveled to the Underworld. Hades knew of their plan to capture his wife, so he pretended to offer them hospitality and set a feast; as soon as the pair sat down, snakes coiled around their feet and held them there.
Theseus was eventually rescued by Heracles but Pirithous remained trapped as punishment for daring to seek the wife of a god for his own. First, Heracles went to Eleusis to be initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries. He did this to absolve himself of guilt for killing the centaurs and to learn how to enter and exit the underworld alive. He found the entrance to the underworld at Taenarum. Athena and Hermes helped him through and back from Hades.
Heracles asked Hades for permission to take Cerberus. Hades agreed as long as Heracles didn't harm Cerberus.