BBC - History - British History in depth: Scottish Wars of Independence
Before then, the two nations hardly had a cuddly relationship. There was that English king who was subtly known as the "hammer of the Scots. backed at times by the French, waged a long-running rebellion that was only. French-Scottish relations were severely hit in early after a the Scots and the French cooperated is they both hated the English, and the. The implication that the Irish, English, Scottish and Welsh have a . “It would be wonderful if it improved relations, but I somehow think it won't.
The capture and execution of William Wallace in was followed by the issuing of an ordinance for the government of Scotland. Though this ordinance gave the Scots some measure of self-government, it left them a conquered community.
Top The Bruce Renewed war against Edward was born out of individual ambition. Robert Bruce had not forgotten his family's claim to the throne and after shifting between Edward and Balliol's supporters, he made his own move.
Bruce murdered his main rival, John Comyn, in February This provided the impetus, and the next month Bruce was crowned king. His coup divided the Scottish nobility.
Many joined the English in suppressing the rebels. Bruce was defeated at Methven near Perth in June and he was forced to flee into exile, abandoning family and friends to death and imprisonment. Bruce's exile, probably in the Hebrides, did allow him to prepare a final rebellion. In Januaryhe landed in Carrick with his rebel supporters.
Edward quickly mustered forces to crush the rebels and for the next six months, Bruce's small band desperately eluded their enemy. Bruce out-manoeuvred Edward's poorly-led army, forcing the English king to flee for his life. Things began to improve with the small victories at Glen Trool and Loudoun Hill, but it was the death of Edward in July which marked a turning point.
Auld Alliance - Wikipedia
His heir, Edward II, lacked his father's determination and ability. After a brief foray into Scotland, the new king headed south and failed to return until Bruce grasped his chance.
Leading a force northwards, during the following winter, he raised support and defeated the numerous Scottish lords who opposed him in the north. From he used the north as a base to extend his rule into central Scotland, and this improving position allowed him to hold a parliament at St Andrews and negotiate with France, Norway and the papacy. Though Edward II campaigned in Scotland inhis poor relations with his nobility led to civil war which rumbled on until Once again, Bruce exploited the opportunity.
France reinvigorates 'Auld Alliance' with new base in Scotland
Dundee and Perth were captured and Galloway was forced to submit, leaving only Lothian in English hands. Bruce's demand that his remaining Scottish enemies should submit finally led to Edward II preparing a fresh campaign. Before it was launched, Bruce's men captured the key castles of Edinburgh and Roxburgh. In Junea massive English army came north. It marched to relieve Stirling Castle, but on 23 June its advance was blocked by Bruce's smaller host.
Over the next two days, Bruce out-manoeuvred Edward's cumbersome and poorly-led army, finally sweeping it from the fields by the small Bannock burn, forcing Edward to flee for his life. Top Embattled independence Bannockburn gave Robert the Bruce control over Scotland, but did not secure recognition of his crown from England.
- Scottish Wars of Independence
- Auld Alliance
- France–United Kingdom relations
It would take 14 more years before this was won. In the years fromBruce took the war into Edward II's lands. Scottish armies marched through northern England, plundering and demanding cash for local truces, and in Robert's brother and chief lieutenant, Edward Bruce, led an army to Ireland in search of his own kingdom. After some success, the Irish war ended in Edward's defeat and death at Fochart inbut under James Douglas and Thomas Randolph the Scots were increasingly ambitious in northern England and also captured Berwick in Intense war placed strains on both lands.
Papal hostility added to Robert's problems and he faced a conspiracy from among his own nobles in Edward was ultimately brought down by a rebellion led by his own queen, Isabella, and her lover, Roger Mortimer. The unified realm described in the famous letter to Pope John known as the Declaration of Arbroath was not always matched in reality. But the pressures on Edward II were just as strong.
The loss of Scotland and the ravaging of the north were elements in sustained opposition to the English king. On the promise of French military help, and a French dukedom for himself, Arran agreed to the marriage. In June, the much awaited French help arrived at Leith to besiege and ultimately take Haddington. On 7 Julya Scottish Parliament held at a nunnery near the town agreed to a French marriage treaty.
BeatonSetonFlemingand Livingston. Mary and Francis in Catherine de' Medici 's book of hoursc. She was considered a pretty child and later, as a woman, strikingly attractive. Henry commented that "from the very first day they met, my son and she got on as well together as if they had known each other for a long time".
Under the terms of the Treaty of Edinburghsigned by Mary's representatives on 6 JulyFrance and England undertook to withdraw troops from Scotland and France recognised Elizabeth's right to rule England. However, the seventeen-year-old Mary, still in France and grieving for her mother, refused to ratify the treaty. King Francis II died on 5 Decemberof a middle ear infection that led to an abscess in his brain.
Only four of the councillors were Catholic: Even the one significant later addition to the council, Lord Ruthven in Decemberwas another Protestant whom Mary personally disliked. She joined with Lord Moray in the destruction of Scotland's leading Catholic magnate, Lord Huntly, in after he led a rebellion in the Highlands against her.
Elizabeth refused to name a potential heir, fearing that to do so would invite conspiracy to displace her with the nominated successor. However, when her uncle, the Cardinal of Lorrainebegan negotiations with Archduke Charles of Austria without her consent, she angrily objected and the negotiations foundered.
Mary was horrified and banished him from Scotland. Furthermore, the cessation of hostilities between England and France infollowed by the treaty of "perpetual peace and friendship," allowed Edward to devote all of his attention and forces to attack the Scots. Scotland, in the end, owed its eventual survival to the military acumen and inspiration of Robert the Bruce and the mistakes of Edward IIrather than its Auld Alliance with France.
InRobert the Bruce renewed the alliance, with the Treaty of Corbeil. The motive for this renewal was precautionary more than anything: This, however, rapidly changed after when Edward III set out to complete his conquest of Scotland and to reassert his power in France. For the first time the Franco-Scottish alliance had been given a sense of emergency. His year absence as Edward's prisoner only increased the internal turmoil and power struggles of Scotland.
Even after his release inDavid spent most of his remaining reign attempting to further English interests in Scotland. Plans were drawn up in for a Franco-Scottish invasion of England.
BBC - Scotland's History - The Auld Alliance
This included the dispatch of a small French force to Scotland for the first time. These plans never came to any form of action after the French invasion failed to materialise. The deteriorating relations between France and Scotland were summed up by the French Chronicler Jean Froissart who "wished the King of France would make a truce with the English for two or three years and then march to Scotland and utterly destroy it".
Between and as many as 15, Scottish troops were sent to France.