THE BATTLE OF PHILIPPI – Cleopatra
When Caesar's ghost appears to Brutus at his tent he comes with the message: thou shalt see me at Philippi. Since Brutus will be killed in the. The armies meet at Philippi. If we do not gain the battle this day, I shall consider all hope and possibility of saving our country forever gone. On the night before the battle the phantom that appeared to him before and said, “I'll see you at Philippi,” reappeared. I assume he said, “Hi!.
In Rome the three main Caesarian leaders Antony, Octavian and Lepiduswho controlled almost all the Roman army in the west, had crushed the opposition of the senate and established the second triumvirate. The triumvirs decided that Lepidus would remain in Italy, while the two main partners of the triumvirate, Antony and Octavian, moved to northern Greece with their best troops, a total of 28 legions.
They were able to ferry their army across the Adriatic and sent out a scouting force of eight legions, commanded by Norbanus and Saxaalong the Via Egnatiawith the aim of searching for the Liberators' army. Norbanus and Saxa passed the town of Philippi in eastern Macedonia and took a strong defensive position at a narrow mountain pass. Antony was following, while Octavian was delayed at Dyrrachium because of his ill-health which would accompany him throughout the Philippi campaign.
THE BATTLE OF PHILIPPI
Although the triumvirs had been able to cross the sea with their main force, further communications with Italy were made difficult by the arrival of the Republican admiral Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbuswith a large fleet of ships.
They had spent the previous months plundering Greek cities to swell their war-chest. They gathered in Thrace with the Roman legions from the eastern provinces and levies from allies. With their superior forces they were able to outflank Norbanus and Saxa, who had to abandon their defensive position and retreat west of Philippi.
This meant that Brutus and Cassius could position their forces to hold the high ground along both sides of the Via Egnatia, about 3. The southern position was anchored on a supposedly impassable marshwhile on the north on impassable hills. They had time to fortify their position with a rampart and ditch. Brutus positioned his camp to the north while Cassius was on the south of the via Egnatia.
Antony arrived and positioned his army south of the via Egnatia, while Octavian put his legions north of the road. Opposing forces[ edit ] The Triumvirs' army present for the battle included nineteen legions. Only two of the legions were at full strength, but the army was reinforced by levies from the eastern allied kingdoms.
Appian reports that the army mustered a total of about 80, foot-soldiers. Allied cavalry totaled 20, horsemen, including 5, bowmen mounted in the Eastern fashion. The loyalty of the soldiers who were supposed to fight against Caesar's heir was a delicate issue for the Liberators. It is important to emphasize that the name "Octavian" was never used by contemporaries: We were not his soldiers then, but our country's" and with a gift of 1, denarii for each legionary and 7, for each centurion.
By all accounts, Brutus should have won the day.
SCENE I. The plains of Philippi.
He had superior forces and a superior position. Mark Antony and Octavian were running out of money and food, and their supplies were cut off. They also found out that the Liberators navies had defeated their navies in the Ionian Sea. Their forces were getting weaker. Brutus only finds this out right before the battle.
From a military perspective, Brutus should have waited a bit longer, but the battle ensued. At the end of the day, Mark Antony was victorious. Brutus, a man of virtue and honor, committed suicide. Mark Antony had some respect for Brutus and gave him a proper Roman burial.
His head, however, was decapitated and sent to Rome to be placed at the foot of a statue of Julius Caesar! The Aftermath of the Battle Brutus and Cassius had both committed suicide. After the battle was over, a general amnesty was proclaimed and many of Brutus and Cassius forces joined Antony and Octavian.
This was the high-point in the military career of Mark Antony. He was a great general, but he had the morals of an alley cat. He and Octavian divided up the Roman Empire. Mark Antony took the eastern part and began a relationship with Cleopatra of Egypt.
Octavian on the other hand, was destined for imperial rule. The astrological sign he was born under, Capricorn, indicated he would rule the world.
A number of veterans from this conflict retired from military duty and settled in Philippi after it was declared a Roman colony. An Historical Judgment History always makes value judgments. Usually the victor is portrayed in a good light, especially by his friends and willing accomplices in the media. On the other hand, the vanquished is generally put in a bad light because he is not around to defend himself.
The axiom holds true: Which side was the bad side? Who were the good guys? Who were the bad?
Which side did Satan side with? How many people do you know with the name Brutus? You may name your dog Brutus, but never your child. Ironically, John Wilkes Booth fancied himself to be a 19th century Brutus because he assassinated, from his political perspective, the tyrant Abraham Lincoln! A Spiritual Perspective All history is really His-story because God is sovereign and He is in control of history in order to bring about His plan, program and purposes.
So we must remember, God is sovereign and in control of history and He will bring about His plan, program and purposes. After the battle of Philippi, that plan was to bring His Son into the world in order to redeem those who were under the law. After the death of the Lord Jesus on the Cross and His bodily resurrection, His plan is for believers to wait for His Son to return from Glory and change our lowly bodies.
Until that day, we are to honor the king, pray for those in authority over us and be subject to those rulers. Appian Roman History. Loeb Classical Library 5. Loeb Classical Library Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus. Cassius, the older man, yields to Brutus in this matter, as we have seen him do whenever difference of opinion arose between them. This grudging acquiescence of Antony in the leadership of young Octavius the poet invents as a foil to set off the ready and willing deference paid by Cassius to Brutus.
We are not told in the play that Brutus went into the battle in command of the right of his army; but as we learn from V, 3,that Brutus' wing confronted that of Octavius, and have seen that Octavius has insisted on having the command of his own right, we must infer that the poet, if he thought the matter out, gave to Brutus the subordinate position on the left, choosing herein to differ from his authority.
Julius Caesar Act 5 Scene 1 - Brutus and Antony talk at Philippi
But yet Cassius gave it to him," etc. In his life of Antony, Plutarch says: Caesar did no great matter, but Antonius had alway the upper hand, and did all. Several days have elapsed since the previous scene in Brutus' tent near Sardis. It is the autumn of B. Pronounced in three syllables, re-gi-ons like "sol-di-er" in IV, i, I am in their bosoms: I know their real motives; I see into their hearts. We speak of a bosom friend, and a bosom sin, with much the same significance.
Their bloody sign of battle. According to Plutarch, "the Signall of Battell. I will do so. That is, I will do as I have said, -- lead the right wing. This gives us a glimpse of the true character of Octavius, who, as history tells us, always stood firm against Antony. Even here, when but a youth of twenty-one, he shows the stuff that later made him the great Emperor Augustus.
The posture of your blows: The place where your blows are to fall; or possibly, "The nature of your blows. Classical writers often speak of Hybla in Sicily as a town famous for its honey.
Cassius, of course, is speaking tauntingly. Our expression "honeyed words" suggests beguiling, flattering language, -- "smooth talk," -- and is not exactly complimentary. Compare these lines with the scene in the Capitol when Caesar was slain.