Relationship between cells tissues organs and organ systems in plants

Plant Structure

relationship between cells tissues organs and organ systems in plants

A plant has two organ systems: 1) the shoot system, and 2) the root the organs such as leaves, buds, stems, flowers (if the plant has any), Dermal tissue is composed of epidermal cells, closely packed cells . To facilitate gas exchange between the inner parts of leaves, stems, and fruits, plants have a. Learn about the main tissue types and organ systems of the body and how Cells make up tissues, tissues make up organs, and organs make up organ systems. . Defends against infection and disease and transfers lymph between tissues. When we have a group of similar cells working together this is called a tissue, Different organs working together form an organ system, our heart and blood.

The above image left is from Purves et al. The above illustration right is from gopher: Plants have only three tissue types: Dermal tissue covers the outer surface of herbaceous plants.

Dermal tissue is composed of epidermal cells, closely packed cells that secrete a waxy cuticle that aids in the prevention of water loss.


The ground tissue comprises the bulk of the primary plant body. Parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma cells are common in the ground tissue.

relationship between cells tissues organs and organ systems in plants

Vascular tissue transports food, water, hormones and minerals within the plant. Vascular tissue includes xylem, phloem, parenchyma, and cambium cells.

Two views of the structure of the root and root meristem. Images from Purves et al. Plant cell types rise by mitosis from a meristem.

How Are Cells, Tissues & Organs Related? | Sciencing

A meristem may be defined as a region of localized mitosis. Meristems may be at the tip of the shoot or root a type known as the apical meristem or lateral, occurring in cylinders extending nearly the length of the plant.

A cambium is a lateral meristem that produces usually secondary growth. Secondary growth produces both wood and cork although from separate secondary meristems. Parenchyma Back to Top A generalized plant cell type, parenchyma cells are alive at maturity.

They function in storage, photosynthesisand as the bulk of ground and vascular tissues. Palisade parenchyma cells are elogated cells located in many leaves just below the epidermal tissue.

Spongy mesophyll cells occur below the one or two layers of palisade cells. Ray parenchyma cells occur in wood rays, the structures that transport materials laterally within a woody stem.

Parenchyma cells also occur within the xylem and phloem of vascular bundles. The largest parenchyma cells occur in the pith region, often, as in corn Zea stems, being larger than the vascular bundles. In many prepared slides they stain green.

relationship between cells tissues organs and organ systems in plants

Diagram of leaf structure. Note the arrangement of tissue layers within the leaf. Image from Purves et al.

What is the difference between cells, tissues, organs and organ systems? | MyTutor

Cross-section of a stained leaf of Syringia. The basal, bottom, side faces the underlying cells. For instance, the apical sides of intestinal cells have finger-like structures that increase surface area for absorbing nutrients. Image showing three cells lining the small intestine. Each cell contains a nucleus and is surrounded by a plasma membrane. The tops of the cells have microvilli that face the cavity from which substances will be absorbed.

Often, the cells are joined by specialized junctions that hold them tightly together to reduce leaks. Connective tissue Connective tissue consists of cells suspended in an extracellular matrix. In most cases, the matrix is made up of protein fibers like collagen and fibrin in a solid, liquid, or jellylike ground substance. Connective tissue supports and, as the name suggests, connects other tissues. Loose connective tissue, show below, is the most common type of connective tissue.

It's found throughout your body, and it supports organs and blood vessels and links epithelial tissues to the muscles underneath.

Dense, or fibrous, connective tissue is found in tendons and ligaments, which connect muscles to bones and bones to each other, respectively.

What is the difference between cells, tissues, organs and organ systems?

Loose connective tissue is composed of loosely woven collagen and elastic fibers. The fibers and other components of the connective tissue matrix are secreted by fibroblasts. Specialized forms of connective tissue include adipose tissue—body fat—bone, cartilage, and bloodin which the extracellular matrix is a liquid called plasma.

Muscle tissue Muscle tissue is essential for keeping the body upright, allowing it to move, and even pumping blood and pushing food through the digestive tract. Muscle cells, often called muscle fibers, contain the proteins actin and myosin, which allow them to contract. There are three main types of muscle: From left to right. Smooth muscle cells, skeletal muscle cells, and cardiac muscle cells.

Smooth muscle cells do not have striations, while skeletal muscle cells do. Cardiac muscle cells have striations, but, unlike the multinucleate skeletal cells, they have only one nucleus. Cardiac muscle tissue also has intercalated discs, specialized regions running along the plasma membrane that join adjacent cardiac muscle cells and assist in passing an electrical impulse from cell to cell. Skeletal muscle is attached to bones by tendons, and it allows you to consciously control your movements.

For instance, the quads in your legs or biceps in your arms are skeletal muscle. Cardiac muscle is found only in the walls of the heart.

relationship between cells tissues organs and organ systems in plants

Like skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle is striated, or striped. But it's not under voluntary control, so—thankfully! The individual fibers are connected by structures called intercalated disks, which allow them to contract in sync. Smooth muscle is found in the walls of blood vessels, as well as in the walls of the digestive tract, the uterus, the urinary bladder, and various other internal structures.

relationship between cells tissues organs and organ systems in plants

Smooth muscle is not striped, striated, and it's involuntary, not under conscious control. That means you don't have to think about moving food through your digestive tract! We've mentioned the specialised cells found in a leaf in Unit 1but here's the same diagram labelled with the tissues instead. Epidermis tissue is made up of epidermis cells.

A leaf has two layers of epidermis tissue: Epidermis tissues contain and protect the leaf and therefore the cells are long and thin and do not contain many chloroplasts.

The palisade mesophyll tissue is where the majority of photosynthesis occurs in the leaf. It is the uppermost of the two mesophyll tissues in order to absorb the majority of the light energy as it hits the leaf. It is made up of palisade mesophyll cells which have a large number of chloroplasts, are packed tightly together and are tall and thin in order to absorb as much light energy as possible.

Some photosynthesis occurs in the spongy mesophyll cells, so they do contain chloroplasts, but there is much less than in the palisade tissue above. The spongy mesophyll tissue provides a large surface area for the diffusion of the gases involved in photosynthesis into and out of the leaf. They therefore have a large amount of air spaces between the cells to allow this diffusion to occur.

You can view many more specialised cell types in lots of detail in this diagram. There's a video clip on cells, tissues and organs on the BBC website, and this is a great teacher made video explaining cells, tissues and organs in quite a bit of detail.