“Psychology” is defined as “the scientific study of the mind and behavior.” In this discipline, it also covers the growth and development of human. This chapter discusses the concepts of human growth and development. .. sexual dimorphism, and finally the lack of a relationship between maturity and size. Growth of the human fetus from the fourth month to the ninth month of Human development, the process of growth and change that takes place between birth For the same reason there is practically no relation between adult size and the.
Growth of the child can be measured, but development can only be observed by noting changes in activity and behavior. Any person, who is concerned with the education of an individual at whatever age, must recognize the presence of and the rate of development of various areas of human growth.
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School men and women must take cognizance of not only of the fact that the potential learner consists of brain, but that he is complex of many phases of growth. Rate of growth and development is different for each child for each trait. It is not unusual, for example, for a teacher who has taught a child at 7 years of age to discover that at the age of 12 the child displays a much greater and a much lower degree of mental alertness than was found in earlier years.
Some children develop rapidly in one or another trait during early years and then seen to reach a plateau, which means there is no further development.
Still others appear to be retarded in early years. A large difference between physical growth and development, however, is that physical growth from bone largely stops at some point. Adults will likely lose and gain weight through fat and muscle growth and loss but will not grow taller after growth plates close.
Development continues throughout life, from childhood, adolescence and adulthood, until death. Developmentally Challenged According to Erikson's theory, successful completion of each stage of development is necessary to move on to the next stage of life development.
Unfortunately, if a stage of development is never completed, that individual may not complete a healthy life-long development. For example, in early stages of life, a child learns competence sometime between the ages of six and If this child's competence is hindered for some reason, he may have difficulty graduating to the next developmental stage, which is identity versus role confusion.
This adolescent could grow into adulthood feeling inferior and lacking competence, which is often crucial for successful, healthy living.
Development Stages Early life stages are based on the development of the sense of self. These stages involve trusting others, self control, shame, competence and self faith.
In most tissues, growth consists both of the formation of new cells and the packing in of more protein or other material into cells already present; early in development cell division predominates and later cell filling. Types and rates of human growth Different tissues and different regions of the body mature at different rates, and the growth and development of a child consists of a highly complex series of changes.
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- Human Growth and Development
- Difference Between Human Growth & Development
It is like the weaving of a cloth whose pattern never repeats itself. The underlying threads, each coming off its reel at its own rhythm, interact with one another continuously, in a manner always highly regulated and controlled.
What is the relationship between growth, development and education?
The fundamental questions of growth relate to these processes of regulation, to the program that controls the loom, a subject as yet little understood. In this section, the height curves of girls and boys are considered in the three chief phases of growth; that is briefly from conception to birth, from birth until pubertyand during puberty.
Also described are the ways in which other organs and tissues, such as fat, lymphoid tissueand the brain, differ from height in their growth curves.
There is a brief discussion of some of the problems that beset the investigator in gathering and analyzing data about growth of children, of the genetic and environmental factors that affect rate of growth and final size, and of the way hormones act at the various phases of the growth process. Lastly, there is a brief look at disorders of growth.
Throughout, the emphasis is on ways in which individuals differ in their rates of growth and development.
Differences Between Growth and Development in Psychology
The changes in height of the developing child can be thought of in two different ways: If growth is thought of as a form of motion, the height attained at successive ages can be considered the distance travelled, and the rate of growth, the velocity.
The blood and tissue concentrations of those substances whose amounts change with age are thus more likely to run parallel to the velocity rather than to the distance curve. In some circumstances, indeed, it is the acceleration rather than the velocity curve that best reflects physiological events.
In general, the velocity of growth decreases from birth onward and actually from as early as the fourth month of fetal life; see belowbut this decrease is interrupted shortly before the end of the growth period.
At this time, in boys from about 13 to 15 years, there is marked acceleration of growth, called the adolescent growth spurt.